Highway with fast cars
Research News

New study on speaking fluency development

“Fluency” is an important concept in language education, and it can mean a range of things. Broadly speaking, fluency is the ability to think, speak and/or write in a smooth, straightforward way. It emerges as learners develop automaticity: subconscious activation of internalized knowledge […]

Woman thinking
Teaching Tips

Helping learners think about thinking

Metacognition, writes Jennifer Eidum Zinchuk, “is often conflated with reflection, or the conscious exploration of past experiences.” In this article for the (U.S.) National Council of Teachers of English, Zinchuck, a composition professor, explains how […]