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Research News

New study on speaking fluency development

“Fluency” is an important concept in language education, and it can mean a range of things. Broadly speaking, fluency is the ability to think, speak and/or write in a smooth, straightforward way. It emerges as learners develop automaticity: subconscious activation of internalized knowledge […]

Research News

Re-examining the ‘critical period’

Children “soak up languages like a sponge,” say the lay public enrolling their kindergartners in Mandarin classes. This assumption is likely based in part on the “Critical Period Hypothesis“–a popular, yet controversial belief that language learners […]